This publication exhibits how, in the course of the twentieth century, evils resembling totalitarianism, tyranny, warfare, and genocide turned indelibly associated with the fascist reason, and examines the long-lasting and renowned allure of an ideology that has counted princes, poets, and battle heroes between its such a lot fervent adherents.
• 500 A–Z entries on fascist leaders and the routine, doctrines, and key occasions linked to fascism
• an intensive index that allows readers to find subject matters quick and easily
• information regarding fascism as a global flow from a variety of sources
• Contributions from over a hundred students from greater than 20 nations
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Additional info for World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia - 2 Volume set
The Church didn't ﬁnally start to come to phrases with the republican established order in France till the very finish of the 19th century, while Pope Leo XIII known as for an finish to hostilities. ) The anti-Dreyfusards have been in truth viscerally opposed to the Enlightenment. They have been on the contrary pole from the speciﬁcally anti-Catholic anti-Semitism that encouraged the Nazis, in accordance with the “scientiﬁc” rationalist and secularizing stream of hostility to Christian instructing that had built out of the Enlightenment. A German picture from the Thirties exhibits a charabanc draped with a banner expressing hatred for “Jews and Jesuits,” and Rosenberg’s vintage textbook of Nazism many times brackets jointly those nice enemies of Nazi values. The Jesuits have been singled out as consultant of the spirit of Catholicism simply because they weren't topic to the episcopal hierarchies of the nationwide church buildings yet have been without delay answerable to the pope, in order that they represented the very acme of that internationalism that the Nazis so detested. The “scientiﬁc” argument for anti-Semitism accepted in Germany and favourite by way of the Nazis outfitted at the paintings of a Frenchman, Arthur de Gobineau, who claimed that race by myself is the decisive consider the increase and fall of civilizations, instead of things like governments, principles, or the inﬂuence of faith. In Gobineau’s view, historical past indicates that races upward push to strength of their natural country and fall after they have suffered illness. He claimed that the purest modern race was once the Aryans, believed to be the traditional forebears of the Anglo-Saxons. He argued that strength and conquest have been necessary to the character of the Aryans, aristocrats between their contemporaries. even if, their racial purity used to be topic to infection by way of interbreeding with lesser races, and that might spell their inevitable decay. Gobineau’s rules have been popularized in Germany via Ludwig Schemann, who developed a classically antimodernist worldview that identiﬁed the horrors of modernity with values derived from know-how and technology. In 1925 he claimed that the major want for the Germans used to be to rid themselves of the fable that giant towns, machines, and the emancipation of the Jews have been symptoms of growth. The Nazis appointed Schemann to the Reichsinstitut for contemporary heritage, and he was once presented the Goethe medal for his companies to the state and the race—though his hostility to expertise and technology was once faraway from being embodied in Nazi perform. In Houston Stewart Chamberlain’s Foundations of the 19th Century, the hypotheses of a “German” technological know-how and a “German” faith have been used as guns of anti-Semitic propaganda. Religiously talking, the heritage of mankind used to be held to heart on a sour fight among God as embodied within the Germanic race and the satan as embodied within the Jewish race. The Teutonic peoples were bearers of all of the most sensible non secular and cultural values in Greek and Roman civilization, yet they have been remorselessly adversarial through the Jews with their materialism, self-esteem, and culturelessness.