By David Konstan
This ebook is a heritage of friendship in Greece and Rome, from the warrior society of the Homeric epics to the time of the Christian Roman Empire. It demonstrates how old friendship resembles smooth conceptions, and the way it evolves in several social contexts. The e-book sheds new gentle on such questions as friendship and democracy, the significance of associates in executive and in philosophical groups, women's friendships, and the transformation of friendship lower than the impression of Christian principles of brotherhood.
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Additional resources for Friendship in the Classical World (Key Themes in Ancient History)
Yet then we're up opposed to the truth that within the fourth century the hetaireiai don't appear to have been political golf equipment. thirteen however, a number of references in modern assets to the position of philoi in politics invite nearer inspection. Euripides' Electra dramatizes an previous second within the dynastic fight among the youngsters of Agamemnon and their mom Clytemnestra, who, after slaying her husband, took as her consort Agamemnon's cousin, Aegisthus. The motion starts off with Orestes' stealthy go back from exile, observed via Pylades, whom he salutes as "faithful philos and xenos" (82). After he has published his id to Electra, Orestes inquires concerning the political scenario: "Do i've got the great will of philoi in Argos, or am i love my good fortune — stripped of every little thing? With whom am i able to collaborate? by way of evening or in sunlight? by way of what highway we could flip upon our enemies [ekhthroi]? " (601-4). Orestes' previous teach, who had remained in Argos, replies: "Son, you haven't any buddy in ailing success, for it is a genuine locate - somebody to proportion sturdy and undesirable alike" (605-7). in truth, even if, the standard farmer whom Electra has been compelled to marry welcomes any pal of Orestes as a pal of his (300-2), and Electra pronounces the refrain of Mycenaean girls to be reliable buddies (272-3). Orestes has a few neighborhood aid, obviously indicated within the language of friendship. whilst a cry is heard from in the palace, Electra asks: "Was the groan Argive or that of acquaintances? " (755). Electra momentarily imagines Argos as a overseas strength - the foe, rather than her allies. A messenger relieves the suspense: "To all associates I claim that Orestes has conquered" (762). Philoi contain all who're sympathetic to the younger rebels. within the surroundings of civil battle, during which fugitives go back to overthrow the upstart regime, kin are polarized among pals and foe and philoi are reminiscent of partisans. After the matricide, Electra sings over the corpse of her mom: "phila but Cf. Arnheim 1977: 142-5; Rhodes 1986: 138-9; Sinclair 1988: 141-2. Cambridge Books on-line © Cambridge college Press, 2010 Downloaded from Cambridge Books on-line by way of IP 147. 231. seventy nine. a hundred and ten on Thu may perhaps 20 13:45:06 BST 2010. http://dx. doi. org/10. 1017/CBO9780511612152. 003 Cambridge Books on-line © Cambridge college Press, 2010 Friendship and politics sixty three no longer phila, we drape you during this cloak" (1230-1). although expensive as a mom, Clytemnestra is an enemy. 14 Electra was once written a few years sooner than Orestes, however the preliminary state of affairs resembles an occasion modern with the later tragedy. In 407 BC, Alcibiades, who, like Orestes, have been in exile from his place of origin, sailed to Laconia with twenty ships so that it will verify "how the town [Athens] stood with reference to him" (Xen. Hell. 1. four. 11). Xenophon writes (1. four. 12-3): "When he observed that it was once good disposed towards him and they could choose him common and that his partners [epitedeioi] have been privately summoned, he sailed into the Piraeus ... the gang [okhlos] from town collected in regards to the ships.