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By Coulter H. George

How did historic Greek exhibit that an occasion happened at a specific time, for a definite length, or inside a given timeframe? the reply to those questions relies on a number of stipulations - the character of the time noun, the annoying and point of the verb, the actual old interval of Greek in which the writer lived - that current stories of the language don't take sufficiently under consideration. This booklet as a result examines the conditions that govern using the genitive, dative, and accusative of time, in addition to the suitable prepositional structures, essentially in Greek prose of the 5th century BC during the moment century advert, but additionally in Homer. whereas the point of interest is on advancements in Greek, translations of the examples, in addition to a completely glossed precis bankruptcy, make it available to linguists drawn to the expression of time often.

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This leaves six examples, all strong limitative structures: two times stimulated via a future-tense verb (ὀλίγων ἡμερῶν at HG 7. five. 18, πέντε ἡμερῶν at An. four. 7. 20), as soon as via a conditional that, like a destiny, leaves the precise time of the development open, therefore eliciting a limitative development (τῶν προειρημένων ἡμερῶν at Cyr. 6. 2. 38), two times via a unfavorable (δέκα ἡμερῶν at An. 1. 7. 18, τῆς ἡμέρας ὅλης at An. three. three. 11),14 and as soon as in a ταῦτα ἐγένετο development (An. 7. four. 14). 15 buildings with ἐν+D in Xenophon additionally fit these in Thucydides particularly heavily. the best measure of overlap is back with the genitive of time, as either structures are present in either limitative and modal expressions. yet a extra suggested department of work is evidenced in Xenophon, the place the genitive of time is generally distributive-modal (83% of the time), and in simple terms sometimes limitative (17%), whereas ἐν is used overwhelmingly in limitative expressions (20 out of twenty-two examples, or 91%), with purely modal examples. sixteen what's much less transparent, besides the fact that, is the reason for the thirteen 14 15 sixteen See ex. (78) under; ex. (130), in Herodotus, is the same (τῇσι προτέρῃσι ἡμέρῃσι). Cf. additionally (86) in Demosthenes (ταύταις ταῖς ἡμέραις). within the moment of those examples, the destructive is of limited scope (διῆλθον οὐ πλέον πέντε καὶ εἴκοσι σταδίων), however the distinction among the limited floor coated (οὐ πλέον) and the prolonged interval within which the adventure came about (ὅλης) continues to be sufficient to justify calling this a limitative expression. Cf. the dialogue of instance (72) and n. fifty seven in Ch. 2. within the passage from Xenophon, there's additionally the trace of a modal expression, because the clause in query is through εἰς δὲ τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν νύκτα. strains of a similar distribution might be noticeable in Thucydides, however the total figures should not excessive adequate to teach it as truly. 126 x e n op h on passages that pass opposed to the grain. the 2 modal makes use of of ἐν have been might be influenced by means of one-off concerns: (8) εἴ τις αὐτὴν ἐν μέσῳ τῷ θέρει καὶ ἐν μέσῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ κινοίη τῷ ζεύγει If somebody should still plow it (sc. the earth) up in the course of the summer time and in the course of the day (X. Oec. sixteen. 14) (9) καὶ τὸ ταραχθῆναι δὲ ἐν τῇ17νυκτὶ πολὺ μεῖζόν ἐστι πρᾶγμα ἢ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ καὶ δυσκαταστατώτερον And confusion at evening is an even bigger deal and tougher to place correct than it's in the course of the day (X. Cyr. five. three. forty three) In (8), the time nouns in either temporal expressions are also specified via μέσος, a function unprecedented with the genitive of time. probably Xenophon selected ἐν as by some means extra suitable with a modifier pinning down a specific time of the day and season. instance (9) isn't like the modal examples of τῆς ἡμέρας in that ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ isn't associated as syntactically heavily with ἐν τῇ νυκτί as within the passages with the genitive (where one commonly finds καὶ ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτός, οὔτε ἡμέρας οὔτε νυκτός, and the like). Given the presence of a comparative, the prepositional development could have been used to explain the position of the noun, as τῆς νυκτός in advance of μεῖζον might have been misunderstood as a genitive of comparability.

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