Download E-books Encyclopedia of World Writers, Beginnings to the 20th Century, 3-Volume Set (Facts on File Library of World Literature) PDF

A three-volume set that provides the huge spectrum of worldwide literature's nice participants. It comprises entries on significant writers in the course of the global protecting the literary traditions of early Greece and Rome, Europe, Asia, Africa, the center East, and the Americas. It lists nameless works - similar to epics, odes, fables, and sacred texts.

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Cambridge, U. ok. : Cambridge college Press, 1946. 104 Farazdaq, al- Stone Lake: The Poetry of Fan Chengda. Translated and edited by means of J. D. Schmidt. Cambridge, U. okay. : Cambridge college Press, 1992. Farazdaq, al- (nickname of Tammam ¯ ibn Ghalib Abu¯ Firas) ¯ (ca. 640–728) poet Tamm¯am ibn Gh¯alib Ab¯u Fir¯as, or al-Farazdaq (“lump of dough”), was once essentially the most favourite and greatly well known of the “court poets” of the Ummayad, or early Muslim interval. He used to be identified for his dissolute lifestyles in addition to his brilliantly insulting hija (lampooning). Born and raised one of the Tamim tribal confederacy in japanese Arabia, Farazdaq spent so much of his occupation within the urban of Basra in southern Iraq. At one aspect, he was once compelled to escape to Medina after selecting a too-powerful goal for one in every of his hija, yet he used to be expelled from Medina besides after a very indiscrete adulterous escapade. Farazdaq made his residing via writing fawning panegyrics (superlative praises) for the Ummayad caliphs and viceroys and by means of successful the patronage of different filthy rich males who paid dearly to maintain away from his vicious pen. He was once additionally an enthusiastic player in Basra’s highbrow and social existence. in response to a few traditions, he was once a supporter of ‘AL¯I IBN AB¯I TAL¯IB, the murdered caliph, and used to be jailed for it slow on the age of 70 for helping ‘Ali’s grandson Zayn. Farazdaq’s own lifestyles used to be stormy, which isn't excellent in mild of the venom and bragging present in his poetry. He had six or seven other halves at a variety of occasions, yet none introduced him happiness. The decades-long drama of his marriage along with his cousin al-Nawar bint A‘yun after which his eager for her and regrets after their divorce supplied the topic of a number of the poems in his Divan. “The repentance of Farazdaq” turned a well-liked expression, fed by way of such traces as “She was once my Paradise from which i used to be exiled, / like Adam whilst he rebelled opposed to his Lord. ” The poet is kind of frank in describing his immoral own existence. Departing from the Arabic culture of one zero five ghazal lyrics, which regularly depict passionate, unrequited love, Farazdaq’s poems don't idealize his fanatics nor exhibit infatuation for them. Farazdaq used to be an brisk, prolific author whose poems demonstrate a coarse variety and diction in addition to a clumsy syntax. a few critics decry those features as poetic incompetence, an ungainly try and make the most the fast adjustments that have been rising in spoken Arabic. Others speculate that the poet used to be easily attempting to replace the literary language, in response to the brash and cosmopolitan city lifetime of the recent Islamic Empire. certainly, he was once one of the first new release of Arab poets to paintings within the towns and cities of Iraq and Syria, instead of the barren region of the Bedouin. Farazdaq’s enduring popularity, besides the fact that, derives from a 40-year naqa’id (literary feud) that he pursued with rival poet Jarir ibn ‘Atiyya. The poems that resulted contain the Naqaith of Jarir and alFarazdaq. even supposing Arabic poetry was once in simple terms simply commencing to be written down during this period, the streams of rhymed, metered insults and obscenities that poured forth from the opponents have been repeated by way of millions of supporters of the 2 poets all around the Ummayad realm.

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