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By David Sacks

From technology to faith, politics to arithmetic, and paintings to drugs, there are only a few components of our sleek lives that aren't in a roundabout way tormented by classical Greece. Encyclopedia of the traditional Greek international presents interdisciplinary insurance of this influential civilization.

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In 335 B. C. E. , Plato’s former scholar ARISTOTLE opened a rival college, the LYCEUM. between different influential philosophical activities to emerge at the moment at Athens have been EPICUREANISM (ca. 307 B. C. E. ) and STOICISM (ca. three hundred B. C. E. ). Athens nonetheless retained a most appropriate place within the arts, generating, between different abilities, the sculptor PRAXITELES (ca. 350 B. C. E. ) and the playwright MENANDER (ca. three hundred B. C. E. ). The HELLENISTIC AGE observed Athens’s artistic output start to cut down as new facilities of wealth and patronage arose, together with ALEXANDRIA (1) and PERGAMON. In 86 B. C. E. , Athens revolted in an try and unfastened itself from Roman rule, however the normal Sulla sacked town and demolished the fortification partitions that have been construct less than Themistokles 4 centuries previous. within the Imperial interval, Athens regained a few of its former glory, being preferred through the Romans for its wealthy cultural heritage and turning into a prestigious heart of schooling. The philosophical faculties persevered to be lively until eventually 529 C. E. , once they have been closed via the emperor Justinian. Athens remained an immense urban within the Byzantine Empire till 1204. It was once as a result occupied by way of the Franks till 1456 after which by way of the Turks until eventually 1821. at the moment, the Greeks ultimately received their freedom, and in 1833 town of Athens used to be proclaimed the hot nation’s capital. See additionally CORINTHIAN warfare; portray; PERSIAN WARS; POLIS; exchange; TYRANTS. Attica extra analyzing: John Travlos, Pictorial Dictionary of old Athens (New York: Hacker, 1980); John McK. Camp, The Archaeology of Athens (New Haven, Conn. : Yale collage Press, 2001); Mark Munn, the varsity of background: Athens within the Age of Socrates (Berkeley: collage of California Press, 2003). Atlantis The legend of Atlantis (“island within the Atlantic”) first seems to be in dialogues, the Timaeus and the Critias, written in approximately 355 B. C. E. by means of the Athenian thinker PLATO. Plato describes Atlantis as an unlimited, prosperous island or continent that had existed 9,000 years ahead of within the Atlantic Ocean. This area used to be an excellent society, inhabited by means of a complicated and virtuous those who conquered eastward to Europe and Africa. yet their greed for energy grew, till the offended gods despatched a deluge to submerge the island. regardless of our modern day fascination with this legend, it kind of feels transparent that Atlantis by no means existed as defined. Plato most likely made up the story as a parable of selfdestructive satisfaction. a few smooth students think that Plato’s tale may perhaps checklist a few 1,100-year-old folktale telling of the decline of MINOAN CIVILIZATION within the Aegean area. ARCHAEOLOGY has yielded information regarding the volcanic island of Thera (modern Santorini), which was once lower than the impact and/or keep an eye on of the Minoans and used to be destroyed via an important eruption of its volcano within the 1600s B. C. E. This eruption brought on lots of the island to develop into submerged, and it created tidal waves and clouds of ash through the jap Mediterranean, together with at the island of CRETE. Plato’s Atlantis could be a distorted reminiscence of the destruction of Thera or the downfall of Minoan Crete, projected past the Mediterranean global.

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