By Brian Fath, S. E. Jorgensen
The groundbreaking Encyclopedia of Ecology presents an authoritative and finished insurance of the whole box of ecology, from normal to utilized. It contains over 500 unique entries, based to supply the person with entire insurance of the middle wisdom, accessed as intuitively as attainable, and seriously cross-referenced. Written by means of a world crew of major specialists, this innovative encyclopedia will function a one-stop-shop to concise, stand-alone articles for use as some extent of access for undergraduate scholars, or as a device for lively researchers trying to find the newest info within the field.
Entries conceal a number themes, including:
* the 1st reference paintings to hide all features of ecology, from simple to applied
* Over 500 concise, stand-alone articles are written via admired leaders within the field
* Article textual content is supported by way of full-color pictures, drawings, tables, and different visible material
* totally listed and go referenced with designated references for extra study
* Writing point is fitted to either the specialist and non-expert
* on hand electronically on ScienceDirect almost immediately upon e-book
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Ecology, Volumes 1-5
R B Taylor E J Comoss, D A Kelly and H Z Leslie 1363 1370 Y Artioli EQUILIBRIUM suggestion IN PHYTOPLANKTON groups 1342 1356 EPIDEMIOLOGICAL stories OF REPRODUCTIVE results IN people J P Myers and F S vom Saal EPIFAUNA AND EPIFLORA 1339 1350 L Hens and L X Quynh ENVIRONMENTAL tension AND EVOLUTIONARY swap ENVIRONMENTAL TOLERANCE S Nielsen 1383 1389 A Basset, G C Carrada, M Fedele and L Sabetta 1394 1402 1407 Contents ESTUARINE ECOHYDROLOGY E Wolanski, L Chicharo and M A Chicharo ESTUARY recovery 1413 E Wolanski and R H Richmond EUKARYOTES, foundation OF 1422 B DeRennaux EVAPOTRANSPIRATION xiii 1428 S Irmak 1432 ECOLOGICAL signs see ECOLOGICAL symptoms: Coastal and Estuarine Environments EVOLUTION OF safety suggestions EVOLUTION OF OCEANS B Schulze and D Spiteller R Klige 1445 EVOLUTION OF ‘PREY–PREDATOR’ structures EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS H Matsuda EVOLUTIONARY ECOLOGY: evaluate EXERGY 1458 B McKay 1464 EVOLUTIONARY AND BIOCHEMICAL facets EXCRETION 1438 A D Kay and T Vrede 1472 E R Pianka 1481 M Beltramini and F Benetti 1485 S E Jørgensen 1498 EXERGY DESTRUCTION AS AN ECOLOGICAL INDICATOR EXPLOITATION E Sciubba 1510 B computer virus 1522 publicity AND publicity review okay F Gaines, T E Chow and S A Dyer 1527 F FECUNDITY C J A Bradshaw and C R McMahon FELDMANN INDEX M Cormaci FERMENTATION fireplace 1535 1544 M Ciani, F Comitini and that i Mannazzu 1548 J E Keeley FISH development 1557 okay Enberg, E S Dunlop and C Jørgensen 1564 ECOLOGICAL signs see ECOLOGICAL signs: Coastal and Estuarine Environments FISHERIES administration FISHERY versions S J D Martell 1572 okay W Shertzer, M H Prager, D S Vaughan and E H Williams FISHES AS signs OF ESTUARINE wellbeing and fitness AND ESTUARINE significance health J A J Metz health LANDSCAPES FLOODPLAINS foodstuff CHAINS AND nutrition WEBS D R robust R Svanba¨ck and D I Bolnick FOOD-WEB BIOACCUMULATION versions wooded area versions F A P C Gobas S Hummel and ok L O’Hara G R Larocque woodland PLANTATIONS FORESTRY administration FRESHWATER LAKES FRESHWATER MARSHES 1593 1612 B G Lockaby, W H Conner and J Mitchell wooded area administration A okay Whitfield and T D Harrison 1599 S Gavrilets foodstuff SPECIALIZATION 1582 1627 1636 1643 1653 1663 D Zhang and J Stanturf H H Shugart S E Jørgensen 1673 1680 1686 P Keddy primary legislation IN ECOLOGY 1616 1690 S E Jørgensen 1697 xiv Contents FUNGAL protection ideas D Spiteller and P Spiteller FUNGI AND THEIR function within the BIOSPHERE FUZZY versions 1702 G M Gadd 1709 R Wieland 1717 quantity three G GAIA speculation P J Boston 1727 GAUSE’S aggressive EXCLUSION precept iteration TIME J Kneitel 1731 G M Cailliet 1734 international swap affects at the BIOSPHERE W Cramer international WARMING capability AND the web CARBON stability aim features AND ORIENTORS GRASSLAND types 1736 F M Pulselli 1741 H Bossel 1746 T Wiegand, ok Wiegand and S Pu¨tz 1754 ECOSYSTEMS see ECOSYSTEMS: Steppes and Prairies GRAZING A J Underwood GRAZING versions 1765 T Wiegand, ok Wiegand and S Pu¨tz GREENHOUSES, MICROCOSMS, AND MESOCOSMS 1773 W H Adey and P C Kangas progress CONSTRAINTS: MICHAELIS–MENTEN EQUATION AND LIEBIG’S legislation development versions 1782 S E Jørgensen T M Swannack 1797 1799 H HABITAT J Stamps 1807 HABITAT choice AND HABITAT SUITABILITY personal tastes B Doligez and T Boulinier 1810 HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS M A Q Khan, S F Khan and F Shattari 1831 HARDY–WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM G Salanti and J P A Ioannidis 1844 HERBIVORE-PREDATOR CYCLES A C McCall HIERARCHY conception IN ECOLOGY HILL’S POSTULATES P C Chrostowski background OF ECOLOGY HOMEOSTASIS T F H Allen F N Egerton S ok M Ernest HOMEOTHERMS B Bass and T Nixon HUMAN ECOLOGY: review F Steiner HUMAN inhabitants progress looking HYDROSPHERE HYSTERESIS D Pimentel and M Pimentel M N Peterson HYDRODYNAMIC versions 1852 1858 1864 1879 P Frappell and okay Cummings HOPFIELD community 1846 1884 1893 1898 1907 1912 V J Coles, R R Hood and T F Gross Z W Kundzewicz B E Beisner, D Haydon and ok L Cuddington 1915 1923 1930 Contents xv I IMPOUNDMENTS E M Lehman IMPRINTING 1937 T Slagsvold and B T Hansen oblique results IN ECOLOGY V Krivtsov INDIVIDUAL-BASED versions business ECOLOGY 1943 1948 V Grimm 1959 F Duchin and S H Levine 1968 ECOLOGICAL signs see ECOLOGICAL signs: Coastal and Estuarine Environments details and knowledge FLOWS within the BIOSPHERE INSECT PEST types AND INSECTICIDE software INTERMEDIATE DISTURBANCE speculation web P J Georgievich J C Ascough II, E M Fathelrahman and G S McMaster R W Osman C S Parr C Robles P Pysˇek and D M Richardson INVASIVE SPECIES IRON CYCLE 1986 2003 2011 B A Middleton 2020 okay A Hunter and R Strzepek 2028 E A Holzapfel and M A Marin˜o IRRIGATION IN AGRICULTURE ISLAND BIOGEOGRAPHY ISOLATION 1978 1994 INTERTIDAL ZONATION INVASIVE crops 1975 T W Schoener J P Wares and T M Bell 2033 2040 2051 okay k-DOMINANCE CURVES family members choice R M Warwick, ok R Clarke and P J Somerfield A S Griffin 2055 2057 L LAGOONS G Harris LAKE versions 2061 P Reichert and J Mieleitner LAKE recovery M Hupfer and S Hilt LAKE recovery tools LANDFILLS S E Jørgensen L M Chu panorama ECOLOGY 2068 2080 2093 2099 J Wu 2103 panorama MODELING T R Lookingbill, R H Gardner, L A Wainger and C L Tague 2108 panorama making plans U¨ Mander 2116 LAND-USE MODELING LEAD B Voigt and A Troy A M Scheuhammer, W N Beyer and C J Schmitt LEAF region INDEX types LEAF zone INDEX studying H Fang and S Liang N J J Bre´da D R Papaj, E C Snell-Rood and J M Davis lifestyles varieties, crops LIFE-CYCLE overview LIFE-HISTORY styles ok J Niklas M A Curran S H Alonzo and H ok Kindsvater 2126 2133 2139 2148 2154 2160 2168 2175 xvi Contents gentle EXTINCTION A Barausse 2180 restricting elements AND LIEBIG’S precept LIMITS TO progress okay Mengel 2184 C Jaeger 2187 common ECOLOGY see common ECOLOGY: Detritus M MACROEVOLUTION M Shpak 2191 ECOLOGICAL symptoms see ECOLOGICAL signs: Coastal and Estuarine Environments MANGROVE WETLANDS R R Twilley MARGALEF’S INDEX 2198 R loss of life 2209 MARICULTURE WASTE administration C Halling and M Troell MARINE versions A H Buschmann, M C Herna´ndez-Gonza´lez, C Aranda, T Chopin, A Neori, 2211 R R Hood, V J Coles and T F Gross MASS CULTIVATION OF FRESHWATER MICROALGAE MASS creation OF MARINE MACROALGAE fabric AND steel ECOLOGY MATRIX versions J Masojı´dek and G Torzillo R Pereira and C Yarish 2261 2266 G Alexandrov 2273 S V Chernyshenko 2292 F Me´dail METACOMMUNITIES 2296 P C Kangas and W H Adey 2308 M Holyoak and T M Mata METAPOPULATION types MICROBIAL groups MICROBIAL CYCLES 2313 I Hanski METHANE within the surroundings 2318 S A Pegov 2325 J Passarge and J Huisman 2328 G A Zavarzin 2335 MARINE AND AQUATIC security options D Spiteller MICROBIAL ECOLOGICAL approaches: AEROBIC/ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL ECOLOGY MICROBIAL types 2341 J S-C Liou and E L Madsen 2357 P Vadasz and A S Vadasz 2369 2389 F E Matheson MODULES IN MODELING 2393 M L Otte and D L Jacob version improvement AND research version varieties: evaluate 2348 N D grey and that i M Head ok A S Mislan and B Helmuth MINE zone REMEDIATION 2397 S Powell, J P Norton and A J Jakeman 2402 S E Jørgensen 2411 A A Voinov and P A Fishwick tracking, OBSERVATIONS, AND distant SENSING – worldwide DIMENSIONS MONOCULTURES as opposed to POLYCULTURES MORTALITY 2279 M N Maunder MESOCOSM administration MICROCOSMS 2247 S M Shuster greatest SUSTAINABLE YIELD MICROCLIMATE 2236 M A Reuter and A van Schaik topic AND topic FLOWS within the BIOSPHERE MEDITERRANEAN 2226 T Legovic´ MATHEMATICAL ECOLOGY MATING platforms 2217 C okay Williams and B M Collins M E S Bracken 2419 S Unninayar and L Olsen 2425 2446 2449 Contents xvii MULTILAYER PERCEPTRON S Lek and Y S Park 2455 MULTITROPHIC INTEGRATION FOR SUSTAINABLE MARINE AQUACULTURE M Troell, A Neori, A H Buschmann and J Fang MUTAGENESIS C W Theodorakis MUTUALISM T Chopin, S M C Robinson, 2463 2475 J N Holland and J L Bronstein 2485 N typical WETLANDS impartial idea 2504 B B Ward 2511 L van den Berg and M Ashmore NITROGEN CYCLE NOOSPHERE 2493 S P Hubbell NITRIFICATION NITROGEN B Gopal and D Ghosh 2518 P E Widdison and T P Burt 2526 C Ja¨ger 2533 NUMERICAL tools FOR disbursed types NUMERICAL tools FOR neighborhood versions T I Lakoba T I Lakoba 2536 2544 O OCEAN CURRENTS AND THEIR position within the BIOSPHERE optimum FORAGING E R Pianka optimum FORAGING concept D W Stephens 2561 E R Pianka 2567 C Syms natural FARMING 2553 2559 optimum REPRODUCTIVE strategies ORDINATION A Ganopolski 2572 M Sˇru˚tek and J city ORGANISMAL ECOPHYSIOLOGY 2582 T Vrede and A D Kay ORIENTATION, NAVIGATION, and looking J Zeil 2587 2596 ECOLOGICAL signs see ECOLOGICAL signs: improvement potential OXYGEN CYCLE OZONE LAYER D J Wuebbles 2609 D Karentz 2615 quantity four P PALEOECOLOGY PANARCHY PARAMETERS PARASITES PARASITISM H J B Birks 2623 L Gunderson 2634 A A Voinov 2638 okay D Lafferty 2640 G Sorci and S Garnier PARTICIPATORY MODELING E J B Gaddis and A Voinov 2645 2651 xviii Contents PEATLANDS D H Vitt PEDOSPHERE 2656 V O Targulian and R W Arnold PELAGIC PREDATORS D A Croll and B R Tershy continual natural pollution PHENOLS 2665 2670 R Miniero and A L Iamiceli 2672 A J Stewart and R F Stewart 2682 PHENOMENON OF lifestyles: basic facets PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY PHEROMONES S V Chernyshenko 2689 M J West-Eberhard 2701 O Anderbrant 2707 PHILOSOPHY OF ECOLOGY: evaluation PHOSPHORUS CYCLE okay deLaplante 2709 Y Liu and J Chen 2715 PHOTOLYSIS C E W Steinberg and A Paul 2724 PHTHALATES W J G M Peijnenburg 2733 actual delivery procedures IN ECOLOGY: ADVECTION, DIFFUSION, AND DISPERSION PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY PHYTOREMEDIATION B okay McNab J Dengler, M Chytry´ and J Ewald PIONEER SPECIES J W Dalling PLANT festival PLANT safety 2794 PLANT safeguard suggestions D Spiteller J C Hull P de Reffye, E Heuvelink, D Barthe´le´my and P H Courne`de U Lu¨ttge 2845 I Sokolova 2851 POLAR TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY POLLINATION T V Callaghan 2854 E Pacini toxins INDICES 2824 2837 R M Harper and R M Tinnacher POIKILOTHERMS 2811 2818 PLANT development versions PLUTONIUM 2798 F X Pico´, A Rodrigo and J Retana PLANT body structure 2767 2783 N Stamp PLANT ECOLOGY 2751 2779 F Gillet PLANT DEMOGRAPHY 2739 2744 S C McCutcheon and S E Jørgensen PHYTOSOCIOLOGY A Marion 2857 G Bellan 2861 POLYCHAETES/AMPHIPODE INDEX POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS C Chintiroglou and C Antoniadou 2872 G O Thomas POLYCYCLIC fragrant HYDROCARBONS J P Meador inhabitants AND group INTERACTIONS inhabitants VIABILITY research 2868 J P Grover J M Drake 2881 2891 2901 POPULATIONS: r- AND K-SELECTION E R Pianka 2907 PRECAUTION AND ECOLOGICAL possibility O Renn 2909 PRECIPITATION development PREDATION F W Gerstengarbe and P C Werner A Minelli PREY–PREDATOR versions 2916 2923 V Krˇivan significant parts research 2929 C Syms 2940 Contents xix R RADIATION stability AND sun RADIATION SPECTRUM RADIATION ECOLOGY RADIOACTIVITY I N Sokolik 2951 I L Brisbin Jr.